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Wednesday, June 26, 2013

STPM CHEMISTRY NOTES AND QUESTIONS

STPM CHEMISTRY  NOTES AND QUESTIONS

TERM 3
Notes/ Power Point Presentation slides:

CHAP 01 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 TERM 3 INTRO TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
CHAP 02 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 SEM 3 HIDROCARBONS
CHAP 03 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 SEM 3 BENZENE AND ITS COMPOUND
CHAP 04 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 SEM 3 HALOALKANE
CHAP 05 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 SEM 3 ALCOHOL
CHAP 06 CHEMISTRY FORM 6 SEM 3 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 14 : INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

* bonds = single, double, triple, straight chain, branched chain, ring.
* 3 types of chain = straight, branched & ring/ cyclic.
* 2 main types  of isomerism = structural & stereoisomerism.
* Hybridisation = is the mixing of two or more non-equivalent atomic orbitals to give a set of equivalent hybrid orbital.
* sp3 hybridisation = mixing an s-orbital and 3 p-orbital to form 4 equivalent sp3 hybrid orbitals.
* sp2 hybridisation = mixing of an s-orbital and 2 p-orbitals to form 3 sp2 hybrid orbitals.
* s p hybridisation = 2 unhibrid 2p orbitals.
*spis pronounced as s-p-three
*A π, pi bond is weaker than a σ sigma bond.
* Empirical formula = simplest whole number ratio between the different type of atom (or element) in a molecule of the compound.
* Molecular formula = of an organic compound shows the actual number of the different type of atoms (or element) in one molecule of the compound.
* Structural formula = shows the actual number of the different type of atom (or elements) in a molecule of the compound and how the atom are connected to one another.
* Straight Chain, example: _________
* Branched Chain, example: _________
* Ring / Cyclic structure, example: _________
* Double bond, example: _________
* Triple bond, example: _________
* methane, ______ (molecular formula)
* ethane, ______ (molecular formula)
* ethene, ______ (molecular formula)
* ethyne, ______ (molecular formula)
* benzene, structural formula = _________

* Draw 









s-orbital
p-orbital
d-orbital








* Draw Structural Formula & It's Skeletal :
1. ethanoic acid
2. ethane
3. 2-propanol
4. propanone
5. 2-methylpropene
6. popanal

No. of C
Alkane
Alkene
Alkyne

1
Meth
Draw:



Name:
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2
Eth
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3
Prop
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Name:
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Name:
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Name:

4
But
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5
Pent
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Name:
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Name:
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6
Hex
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Name:
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7
Hept
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8
Oct
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9
Nona
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10
Dec
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*
No. of Carbon
shrt
Alkane
Alkene
Alkyne
1
Meth
Methane
Methene
Methyne
2
Eth
Ethane
Ethene
Ethyne
3
Prop
Propane
Propene
Propyne
4
But
Butane
Butene
Butyne
5
Pent
Pentane
Pentene
Pentyne
6
Hex
Hexane
Hexene
Hexyne
7
Hept
Heptane
Heptene
Heptyne
8
Oct
Octane
Octene
Octyne
9
Nano
Nonane
Nonene
Nonyne
10
Dec
Decane
Decene
Decyne














*

======================================================================== TERM 2

TERM 1

Chapter 1 : ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIOMETRY

* proton number (symbol Z) =____ * nucleon number (symbol A) =
* A (_______) = Z (______) + N (______) *A->Z->X = _____
* isotopes = _______
* In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is......
* Half-life = ____ * Nuclear reaction. fission = _____, fusion = ______.
* Radioactive isotope = _____  * Relative Isotopic Mass = _____
* Relative Atomic Mass = ______  * Relative Molecular Mass = _____
* Relative Formula Mass = _______ * one mole = ______  * 1 mole = 6.02....?
* n =MV/???? 
* Calculate the mass of lead that contains:
a. 3.45 mol of lead = ______ g ,
b. 8.4 X 10^22 atoms = _____ g ,
c. 9.8 X 10^24 atoms = ______ g
* Avogadro's number / Avogadro's constant =____  * Solution = ______
* Solute = _____ * Solvent = _____ * Concentration = _____

* Molar Concentration / Molarity = ____ * Molarity (mol dm^-3) = _____

Chapter 1 : ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIOMETRY

* proton number (symbol Z) = is the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom.
* nucleon number (symbol A) = is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
* A (nucleon) = Z (proton no.) + N (neutron)
*A->Z->X
* isotopes = are atoms having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
* In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
* Half-life = of a radioisotope is the time taken for the amount of the isotope or its activity (disintegration per second) to decrease to half its original value.
* Nuclear reaction. fission = breaking, fusion = joining (needs very high temperature for it to occur)
* Radioactive isotope = Isotope with unstable nucleus and undergoes spontaneous disintegration to form nucleus of smaller isotopes.
* Relative Mass
* Relative Isotopic Mass = mass of one atom of the isotope relative to 1/12 times the mass of one atom of the C-12 isotope.
* Relative Atomic Mass = of an element is the average mass of one atom of the element relative to 1/12 times the mass of a C-12 atom.
* Relative Molecular Mass = of a molecular species (elements of compounds) is the mass of one molecule of the substance relative to 1/12 times the mass of one carbon-12 atom.
* Relative Formula Mass = of an ionic compound is the sum of the relative atomic mass of all the atoms in one formula unit of the compound. The mass of an ion is taken to be the same as the mass of its neutral atom.
* one mole = amount of substance which contains the same number of particles (atom, molecules, ions or electrons) as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12.
* 1 mole = 6.02 x 10^23
* n =MV/1000
* Calculate the mass of lead that contains: a. 3.45 mol of lead = 714.15 g , b. 8.4 X 10^22 atoms = 28.88 g , c. 9.8 X 10^24 atoms = 3369.8 g
* Avogadro's number / Avogadro's constant = number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12 is 6.02 X 10^23. The symbols are NA or L.
* Solution = a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
* Solute = substance present in smaller quantity.
* Solvent = substance present in large quantity. most common solvent is water.
* Concentration = amount of solute present in a fixed quantity of the solution.
* Molar Concentration / Molarity = concentration in mol dm^-3
* Molarity (mol dm^-3) = [concentration (g dm^-3)] / [molar mass of solute (g mol^-1)]
*











Homework
15 multiple-choice questions with answer
                                 +
4 structured/essay questions with answer
19 (format for final exam)






CHEMISTRY'S TITLE OF EXPERIMENTS AND PROJECT FOR STPM

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